Background: Neosporosis is a parasitic disease caused by Neospora caninum. This parasite is an obligate intracellular coccidia similar to Toxoplasma gondii with a global distribution. With regard to the experimental studies, vertical transmission of the parasite in the monkey (non-human primates) has increased the concern about the zoonotic potential of this disease. The principal aim of the current research was to perform a mini-review on investigations regarding the Neospora infection in humans on a global scale for the first time.
Methods: All peer-reviewed articles (published until April 2021) on the Neospora infection in humans were searched in English databases such as Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, and ProQuest.
Results: Based on data in the available articles, the presence of antibodies against the Neospora infection was between 0 and 37.7% in people from different countries. The seroprevalence rate of this infection in HIV-positive individuals was higher (26.6% and 37.7%) compared to other cases. Finally, the genomic DNA of Neospora was detected up to 1% using molecular biology techniques.
Conclusions: Overall, the detection of anti-Neospora antibodies in humans indicated that people have been exposed to the parasite. Comprehensive research studies are essential for clarifying the risk factors associated with the Neospora infection in humans. This report provides the baseline information for future researchers. Molecular investigations and genotypic works on N. caninum isolates are highly recommended as well.