Submitted: 09 Sep 2014
Revision: 23 Sep 2014
Accepted: 25 Sep 2014
ePublished: 19 Oct 2014
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Avicenna J Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;1(3): 23497.
doi: 10.17795/ajcmi-23497
  Abstract View: 768
  PDF Download: 477

Research Article

Detection of vanC1 and vanC2 Genes in an Enterococcal Isolate and vanC Genes in non-Motile Enterococcus spp.

Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard 1*, Mary D. Barton 1, Michael W. Heuzenroeder 2

1 School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Sansom Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia
2 Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia
*Corresponding Author: Corresponding author: Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Sansom Institute, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Tel: +98- 2161117055, Email: raminmazaheri@gmail.com


Background: In recent decades, bacterial antibiotic resistance (especially in enterococci) has become a significant problem for human and veterinary medicine. One of the most important antibiotic resistances in enterococci, vancomycin resistance, is encoded by van gene family.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate antibiotic resistance to vancomycin in enterococci and thegenes responsible for this resistance.

Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and thirty enterococcal isolates from pigs (207 isolates), chickens (15 isolates) and humans (eight isolates) were phenotypically and genotypically tested for resistance to vancomycin by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The van genes were confirmed by gene sequencing.

Results: Of the total isolates, 19% were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin, while nearly 15% contained either vanC1 or vanC2 gene. One resistant E. casseliflavus isolate with pig origin (MIC > 8 μg/mL) contained both vanC1 and vanC2 genes. Furthermore, one vanC1 was found in a sensitive E. faecalis isolate of pig origin (MIC ≤ 4 μg/mL) and one vanC2 in a resistant E. faecium isolate of chicken origin (MIC > 32 μg/mL). These genes were not accompanied by other van genes. Other detected genes were vanA in 11 E. faecium isolates of chicken origin (MIC > 32 μg/mL). No vanB genes were found. Gene sequencing results showed 100% identity with GenBank reference genes.

Conclusions: The current report is the first report on the detection of vanC1 and vanC2 genes in one enterococcal species with pig origin. This report is important as it proves the horizontal transfer of various vanC genes to one species possibly due to the compatibility class of plasmids. Furthermore, detection of vanC genes in E. faecalis and E. faecium isolates is important as it suggests that resistance to vancomycin in non-motile enterococci can be encoded by several mechanisms.

Copyright © 2014, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences; Published by Safnek. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
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