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Submitted: 25 Jul 2016
Revised: 18 Aug 2016
Accepted: 05 Sep 2016
First published online: 13 Sep 2016
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Avicenna J Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017;4(1): e41036.
doi: 10.17795/ajcmi-41036
  Abstract View: 155
  PDF Download: 378

Review Article

Types and Levels of Bioaerosols in Healthcare and Community Indoor Settings in Iran

Abdolmajid Ghasemian 1,2, Sepideh Khodaparast 3, Fatemeh Savaheli Moghadam 2, Farshad Nojoomi 1, Hassan Rajabi Vardanjani 4 *

1 Microbiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Department of Bacteriology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Pathology Laboratory, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Researcher of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran
Corresponding author: Hasan Rajabi Vardanjani, Researcher of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, IR Iran. Tel: +98-394514860 Email: bacteriology94@gmail.com

Abstract

Context: Bioaerosols are associated with a wide spectrum of health effects, including infections and contagious diseases, acute toxicities, allergies, and even cancer.

Evidence Acquisition: Previous publications describing research conducted in healthcare and community settings during the years 2001 - 2016 were included in this analysis. The words bioaerosol, contamination, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and Iran were explored via the use of search engines such as PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. A total of 28 studies were found.

Results: The levels of bacterial contamination were higher than those found in the fungal species. The most isolated of the bacterial species were S. aureus (38.24%) and Micrococci (31.6%), and the most isolated of the fungal species were Penicillium (32.28%) and Aspergillus spp (22.78%). The highest levels of contamination were detected in infectious disease (ID) settings (mean = 91±86 cfu/m3 for bacteria and 27 ± 24 for fungi). Moreover, levels of indoor air contamination were lower than the world health organization (WHO) standards, with the exception of S. aureus at 201 cfu/m3 and 189 cfu/m3 in infectious disease (ID) and intensive care unit (ICU) settings, respectively. In terms of geographic area and cultural differences, the numbers of bacterial and fungal agents were not significantly different (i.e., North versus South and East versus West). Moisture levels were significantly related to air contamination (pv = 0.02).

Conclusions: The levels of air contamination inside hospital and healthcare settings were lower than the WHO mean standard. Active air sampling methods are necessary for measuring bioaerosol contamination. There were no significant differences in the levels of contamination found in various indoor settings in Iran. Efficient ventilation systems and contamination prevention or minimization are necessary for these settings.

Keywords: Bacterial Bioaerosols, Fungal Bioaerosols, Hospital Indoors, Community Indoors
Copyright © 2016, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
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