Submitted: 30 Nov 2017
Revised: 25 Dec 2017
Accepted: 28 Dec 2017
First published online: 10 Feb 2018
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Avicenna J Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018;5(1): e64624.
doi: 10.5812/ajcmi.64624
  Abstract View: 94
  PDF Download: 70

Research Article

Improve ICG Based Photodynamic Properties Through Conjugation of ICG Into Nano-Graphene Oxide Against Enterococcus faecalis

Tayebeh Akbari 1, Maryam Pourhajibagher 2, Nasim Chiniforush 3, Sima Shahabi 3,4, Farzaneh Hosseini 1 * ORCiD, Abbas Bahador 2,3,5 *

1 Department of Microbiology, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Teheran, IR Iran
2 Dental Research Center, Dental Research Center, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Laser Research Center of Dentistry (LRCD), Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, R Iran
4 Research Center for Science and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
5 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Corresponding author: Abbas Bahador, Ph.D., Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Keshavarz Blvd, 100 Poursina Ave., 14167-53955, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-2164053210, Fax: +98-2188955810 Email: abahador@sina.tums.ac.ir

Article

Background: Nowadays, a new technique such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used to achieve effective root canal disinfection and eliminate Enterococcus faecalis as the most prevalent species associated with secondary endodontic infections and treatment failures. Employment of an optimized nontoxic photosensitizer (PS) such as indocyanine green (ICG) is a crucial part of this technique; the current study aimed at improving ICG photodynamic properties through conjugation of ICG into nano-graphene oxide (nGO) as a new PS, to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of nGO/ICG against E. faecalis.

Methods: The nGO was synthesized based on the modified Hummer method and then, direct loading of ICG onto its surface. The nGO formation was evaluated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antimicrobial effect of nGO/ICG-PDT against E. faecalis was assessed by counting colony forming units (CFUs).

Results and Conclusion: The SEM analysis confirmed successful synthesis of nGO. The nGO/ICG-PDT at an incorporated concentration of 400 µg/mL ICG with irradiation at an energy density of 31.2 J/cm2 showed significant reduction in the number of E. faecalis higher than PDT based on ICG (1000 µg/mL) (P < 0.05). Since nGO-ICG-PDT showed a significant reduction in the count of E. faecalis at low concentration of ICG (400 µg/mL), it could be proposed as a new approach to treat endodontic infections, alone or in combination with conventional root canal treatment.

Copyright © 2018, Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
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